The provision of cleaning and maintenance services for firefighter PPE varies greatly around the world. Cleaning is a high priority in the USA and parts of Europe, where the majority of Fire and Rescue Services (FRS) will expect a managed services provision as part of their PPE contract.
But in many other areas of the world, there is much less emphasis on cleaning. Some countries tend to replace damaged or heavily soiled garments in favour of cleaning or repair; whereas in other regions, professional cleaning provision simply isn’t available, and firefighters either have their kit cleaned at the station, or are expected to use their washing machine at home.
In recent years, however, the issue of cleaning and maintenance has moved further into the spotlight, following research into a possible link between carcinogens found in smoke particles and higher rates of cancer among firefighters. The professional cleaning of PPE following a fire-related incident, along with other practices such as swift removal of contaminated garments, has been highlighted as a practical means of reducing the risk of carcinogens entering the body.
The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) develops standards for the USA which are adopted by many other countries. In 2001, it was the first standards-setting body to publish a standard outlining criteria for the regular cleaning of kit. Recently updated, the standard NFPA1851:2020 establishes requirements for the selection, care, and maintenance of firefighting protective ensembles to reduce health and safety risks associated with improper maintenance, contamination, or damage.
In the UK, the British Standards Institute (BSI) has recently published a Code of Conduct on the ‘Cleaning Maintenance and Repair of PPE’, BS8617:2019, which has the status of a standard. Development is also underway on a new standard from the International Standards Organisation (ISO) for the Cleaning, Inspection and Repair of Firefighters’ PPE. This will be ISO23616 and is expected to be published in 2021.
Whilst research into health concerns and the development of standards is ongoing, at Bristol Uniforms we continue to take cleaning and repair very seriously. We offer an in-house Managed Services option to FRSs in the UK, and where possible, work with our international distributors to establish relationships with reputable cleaning contractors in order to offer professional cleaning to our customers around the world.
An increase in demand for cleaning and maintenance in the UK has led to the expansion of our Managed Services operations out of London and Bristol. We employ our own delivery drivers to collect soiled or damaged kit from FRSs around the country in a fleet of liveried vans. The garments are then transported to one of our two in-house Service Centres for thorough cleaning, inspection and repair, and are returned to the customer within a guaranteed seven days. Unique bar codes on each item provide Bristol with a thorough record of its life-journey from the date of manufacture, the specific rolls of fabric that were used to create it, and each wash and repair. The Service Centres are also equipped to treat contaminated PPE, which have been exposed to toxic or hazardous materials and need to be cleaned in a specially controlled environment.
We are also the UK distributor for Solo Rescue decontamination machines, which have been designed for installation in fire stations. The machines clean vital SCBA, which often cannot be sent off site for cleaning in case required for an emergency. Residues of combustion gases, soot particles and toxins are removed in just a few minutes, with the machine fitting in a compact space of less than 1m2.
In other countries, we work closely with distributors and partners to offer a similar high quality service to our customers. Total Safety manages all our garment care and maintenance in Spain and has worked with us for more than 20 years. It was the first service of its kind to be established in the country and covers all of Spain including Balearic and the Canary Islands.
Eric Griso Managing Director of Total Safety comments:
“Since we launched our business in 1995, extensive studies have been carried out across the USA, Scandinavia and many other countries, linking cancer to the firefighting profession, and suggesting that toxic substances can enter the body through inhalation and skin absorption. It is becoming more and more apparent that all firefighting PPE should be professionally decontaminated following a fire-related incident, including helmets, boots and gloves.
“At Total Safety, we collect soiled garments from our customers and return them clean and repaired within 72 hours. Although only 40% of fire services in Spain opt for a specialised care and maintenance package, the service is becoming ever more popular, as it offers reassurance that the health of their crew is being prioritised.”
In Spain, the customers of Bristol and Total Safety include Madrid City and Community of Madrid fire brigades, plus the Spanish airports (AENA), and the Generalitat de Catalunya (Government of Catalonia, Spain).
Robert Gomez from Generalitat de Catalunya comments:
“The health and safety of our firefighters is of the utmost importance so we have opted for a care and maintenance contract to ensure that the kit is kept in good condition.”
Now that the wider health implications of smoke contamination are coming to light, the gold standard response would be for all fire services across the world to adopt professional cleaning and maintenance packages, as are currently available in the USA, Spain, Australia and the UK. However, it will of course take time and investment before a professional cleaning infrastructure can be established in many areas of the world.
Fibre and fabric manufacturers and PPE designers are also working together to develop new technologies and designs to minimise the risk of dangerous particles entering the body through the skin. The new challenge for the industry is to create PPE that acts as a barrier to toxins and potentially harmful particles, whilst remaining breathable so that the body stays cool and dry. For example, the face and neck have been identified as significant areas of dermal exposure to products of combustion and potential carcinogens. In response, our new Particulate Protection Hood, launched at the end of last year, features Dupont’s new Nomex NanoFlex particulate barrier and is proven to be 99.8% efficient at preventing particle exposure.
Minimising health risks and helping firefighters to do their job effectively and safely, is at the heart of everything we do at Bristol Uniforms. We have many years’ experience providing high quality care and maintenance packages for many of our customers and are happy to share our knowledge and offer advice with international FRSs who may be interested in establishing more formal Managed Services arrangements.
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